The Feeding Mechanism of Daphnia is not Sieving

Volume 8, Issue 1, February 2024     |     PP. 25-38      |     PDF (166 K)    |     Pub. Date: June 10, 2024
DOI: 10.54647/environmental610397    17 Downloads     795 Views  


Gophen Moshe, Migal Scientific Research Institute, Limnology and Wetlands Ecology POB 831 Kiryat Shmone, Israel

During a historical period of more than 100 years, the function of the P3 and P4 thoracic appendages in Daphnia was defined as filtering. The role of P3 and P4 flapping was indicated as the creator of internal water circulation aimed at gas exchange (respiration) and feeding mechanism. Precise examination of in vivo cinematographic film (high-speed camera, 250 frames per second) by a slow-motion and magnified projection of solid photos of tethered Daphnia confirmed that no water flows through the intra-settular micropore spaces of the P3 and P4 trunk limbs while fluttering was indicated. Therefore, Daphnia’s feeding mechanism is suggested to achieve particle abstraction not by P3 and P4 waived sieving. Straining action requires extra metabolic energy investment, and saving it is an advantage. P3 and P4 appendages in Daphnia are not filters. These trunk limbs are compartments of internal water circulation and respiration cycle mechanisms in Daphnia. Food particle abstraction is not done by sieving, resulting in a saving of metabolic energy. Paddle or “flexible solid walls” functioned likeness of P3 and P4 indicates an optimization during evolution progress as physiological advantages are therefore justified. Evolutionary progressive development promotes resiliency and not ecological weakness. Solid walls function of P3 and P4 support ecological resiliency.

“Daphnia” “Trunk Limbs” “Feeding” “Sieving” “Flexible Solid Walls”

Cite this paper
Gophen Moshe, The Feeding Mechanism of Daphnia is not Sieving , SCIREA Journal of Environment. Volume 8, Issue 1, February 2024 | PP. 25-38. 10.54647/environmental610397


[ 1 ] Livio. M. 2013, Brilliant Blunders, From Darwin to Einstein- Colossal Mistakes by Great Scientists That Changed our Understanding of Life and the Universe. Simon and Schuster, Publisher, Inc. New York; 328 p.
[ 2 ] Gophen, M. (2014) Cinematographic Analysis of Internal Water Flows in Daphnia. Journal of Experimental and Agricultural Sciences, 2, 501-507.
[ 3 ] Gophen, M. (2022) Internal Water Flows and Particles Abstrac- tion in Daphnia. Open Journal of Ecology, 12, 742-755.
[ 4 ] Brendelbeger, H., Herbeck, M., Lang, H. and Lampert, W. (1986) Daphnia’s Filters Are Not Solid Walls. Archiv fur Hydrobiologie, 107, 197-202.
[ 5 ] Gophen, M. and Geller, W. (1984) Filter Mesh Size and Food Particle Uptake by Daphnia. Oecologia, 64, 408-412.
[ 6 ] Ruttner, F. 1940, Part B : Biotic Communities, I: Plankton, 2: The Composition of the Plankton. Third Edition, Translated by D.G. Frey and F. E. Fry,1963, University of Toronto Press Toronto and Buffalo’ pp. 105-119.
[ 7 ] Storch, O. (1924) Morphologie und Physiologie des Fangapparates des Daphniden. Ergrbin. Fortschritte Der Zoologie, 61, 125-234.
[ 8 ] Storch, O. (1925) Der Phyllopoden-Fangapparat. Internationale Revue der gesam- ten Hydrobiologie und Hydrographie, 12, 369-391.
[ 9 ] Cannon, H.G. (1933) On the Feeding Mechanism of the Branchiopoda. Phylosoph- ical Transaction of the Royal Society of London B, 222, 29-226.
[ 10 ] Pennak R, W. 1953. Chapter: 16, Cladocera (Water Fleas) in: Fresh-Water Invertebrates of the United States, The Ronald Press Company, pp 350-382.
[ 11 ] Borradaile, L.A. and F.A. Potts, 1963. Chapter XI The Class Crustacea, Suborder 2 Cladocera in: The Invertebrata, Cambridge University Press 4th edition. pp 375-381.
[ 12 ] Dodson, S.I. and Fry, D.G. (2001) Cladocera and Other Branchiopoda. In: Torph and Covich, Eds., Ecology and Classification of North American Freshwater Invertebrates, 2nd Edition, Academic Press, Boston, 849-913.
[ 13 ] Rubenstein, D.I. and Koehl, M.A. (1977) The Mechanism of Filter Feeding: Some Theoretical Considerations. American Natural, 111, 981-994.
[ 14 ] Peters, R.H. and De Bernardi, R. (1987) Daphnia. Memorie dell’Istituto Italiano di Idrobiologia, No. 45, 502
[ 15 ] Lampert, W. (2011) Daphnia: Development of a Model Organism in Ecology and Evolution. Volume 21, International Ecology Institute, Oldendorf/Luhe, 250 p.
[ 16 ] Smirnov, N.N. (2013) Physiology of Cladocera. Academic Press, Zoology, 352 p.
[ 17 ] Porter, K.G., Feig, Y.S. and Vetter, E.F. (1983) Morphology, Flow Regimes, and Fil- tering Rates, of Daphnia, Ceriodaphnia, and Bosmina, Fed Natural Bacteria. Oecologia (Berlin), 58, 156-163.
[ 18 ] Gerritsen, J., Porter, K.G. and Strickler, J.R. (1988) Not by Sieving Alone: Observations of Suspension Feeding in Daphnia. Bulletin of Marine Science, 43, 366-376.
[ 19 ] Korinek, V. and Machacek, J. (1980) Filtering Structures of Cladocera and Their Ecological Significance I. Daphnia Pulicaria. Vest es Spolec zool, 44, 213-218.
[ 20 ] Korinek, V., Krepelova, B. and Machacek, J. (1981) Ecological Significance of Filtering Structures in Cladocera II. Species of the Genera Daphnia and Ceriodaphnia.
[ 21 ] Ganf, G.G. and Shiel, R.J. (1985) Particle Capture by Daphnia carinata. Australian Journal of Marine and Freshwater Research, 36, 371-381.
[ 22 ] Fryer, G. (1987) The Feeding Mechanisms of the Daphniidae (Crustacea: Cladocera): Recent Suggestions and Neglected Suggestions. Journal of Plankton Research, 9, 419-432.
[ 23 ] Hessen, D.O. (1983) Filtering Structures and Particle Size Selection in Coexisting Cladocera. Oecologia (Berlin), 66, 368-372.
[ 24 ] Brendelberger, H. (1981) Filter Mesh-Size of Cladocerans Predicts Retention Efficiency for Bacteria. Limnology and Oceanography, 36, 884-894.
[ 25 ] Kolhage, K. (1995) Water Flows in Daphnia. 87th Proceedings of the German Zoological Society, Jena, 23-28 May 1995, 8-10.
[ 26 ] Gerritsen, J. and Porter, K.G. (1983) The Role of Surface Chemistry in Filter Feed- ing by Zooplankton. Science, 216, 1225-1227.
[ 27 ] Vogel, S. 1988. Chapter 6: Viscosity and Flow. In: LIFE`S DEVICES the Physical World of animals and plants’ Princeton University Press, Princeton, N.J. pp. 105-129.
[ 28 ] Zamski, E. 2017, Processes and Mechanisms in the Plant World; The Hebrew University Magnes Press, ISBN 978-965-7759-23-3; 271 p (in Hebrew).
[ 29 ] Poiseuille, J. L. M. 1835. Recherches sur les causes du mouvement du sang dans les vaisseaux capillaires. C. R. Acad. Sci. 6: 554-60.
[ 30 ] Hagen, G. H. L. 1839. Uber die Bewegung des Wassers in engen cylindrischen R6hren. Poggendorf's Annalen der Physik und Chemie 46: 423-42.
[ 31 ] Sutera, S. P., and R. Skalak, 1993, The History of Poiseuille Law, Annual Review of Fluid Machanics, Vol.25:1-20,(January 1993),